What is the 5 in 1 vaccine?

  • The 5 in 1 vaccine immunizes against:
  1. Canine Distemper virus
  2. Canine Parvovirus
  3. Canine adenovirus type 1
  4. Canine adenovirus type 2
  5. Canine Parainfluenza virus
  • It is considered a core vaccine that every dog should receive.

What is the 6 in 1 vaccine?

  • In addition to the diseases covered by the 5 in 1 vaccine, the 6 in 1 vaccine also protects against Leptospirosis.

Canine Distemper

What is Canine Distemper?

  • Canine Distemper is a generalized, life-threatening disease of dogs caused by canine distemper virus.
  • Canine distemper is highly contagious and spreads through airborne or ground contact from infected animals.

What dogs are at risk?

  • Canine distemper virus is common in the environment, ANY unvaccinated dog risks infection.
  • Three to six month old puppies face the worst prognosis but dogs of any age experience severe disease and long-term complications.

What type of symptoms and illness does it cause?

  • A perplexing array of possible symptoms has earned Canine Distemper its notorious nickname “ The Great Masquerader”.
  • Tissues affected by canine distemper include the digestive, nervous, and respiratory systems as well as skin and bone marrow.
  • Life threatening symptoms include: fever, respiratory distress, vomiting, diarrhea, paralysis, and seizures.
  • Diagnosis and treatment is difficult and expensive.
  • Mortality is high despite supportive treatment and survivors are often permanently and seriously impaired.

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination against canine distemper is proven to be safe and effective in preventing its disease.
  • It is considered a core vaccine that every dog should receive.

Canine Parvovirus (“Parvo”)

What is Canine Parvovirus?

  • Canine Parvovirus is a highly contagious and resistant microbe that causes severe gastro-intestinal disease in dogs (“Parvo”).
  • This virus spreads via fecal-oral contact from infected animals. Environmental contamination is worsened by its ability to survive for prolonged periods.

What dogs are at risk?

  • ANY unvaccinated or unexposed dog is at risk, however, most life-threatening cases are seen in puppies (6 weeks to 6 months of age).

What symptoms does it cause? What is the course of the disease?

  • Canine Parvovirus extensively damages the inner lining of the digestive tract resulting in severe vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration.
  • Bone marrow damage frequently results in anemia, immunosuppression and other infections.
  • Dogs become seriously ill and often die from organ failure, sepsis and shock.

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination is safe and effective in preventing Canine Parvoviral-disease.
  • It is considered a core vaccine that every dog should receive.

Canine Parainfluenza Virus

What is Canine Parainfluenza virus?

  • Canine Parainfluenza virus is the most common virus associated with Kennel Cough (infectious tracheo-bronchitis). It’s also a cause of canine sinusitis and rhinitis. This respiratory virus is very contagious and has a worldwide distribution.
  • What dogs are at risk?
  • Canine Parainfluenza virus spreads by airborne contact with respiratory secretions released by coughing and sneezing. It also spreads directly through contact with infected surfaces.
  • As with the other causes of Kennel Cough, dogs that regularly visit enclosed locations housing many dogs are at risk.
  • These locations include grooming and boarding establishments, dog shows, animal shelters and busy dog parks.
  • As with most infectious diseases, puppies have the highest risk for severe disease and complications.

What type of symptoms and illness does it cause?

  • Canine Parainfluenza virus causes sudden, non-productive coughing which may last several weeks. Other (rarer) symptoms that may indicate pneumonia include: productive cough, fever and depression.
  • Although it may produce mild respiratory symptoms by itself, it damages the respiratory lining and paves the way for other microbes to worsen disease.
  • Protection against Kennel Cough DEPENDS ON COMBINED IMMUNITY TO ALL ITS CAUSES.
  • Vaccination protocols using Bordetella vaccines in addition to combination products such as the 5-1 vaccine provide optimal protection against Kennel Cough and it’s complications.

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination against Canine Parainfluenza is safe and effective.
  • This vaccine is now considered non-core. It is deemed most appropriate for dogs with the above mentioned risk profile.
  • However, most vaccine manufactures include it in their combination vaccine products such as 5 in 1 and 6 in 1.

Canine Adenovirus type-2

What is Canine Adenovirus type-2?

  • Canine Adenovirus type-2 is one of several microbes associated with Kennel Cough as well as rhinitis and sinusitis. It spreads through oral-nasal contact with infected respiratory secretions.

What dogs are at risk?

  • As with the other causes of Kennel Cough, dogs that visit enclosed locations housing many dogs are at risk.
  • Puppies are high risk for developing serious complications (pneumonia and chronic lung disease).

What type of symptoms and illness does it cause?

  • Canine adenovirus type-2 can produce sudden, non-productive coughing which may last several weeks. Symptoms suggestive of pneumonia include: productive cough, fever and depression.
  • Although it may produce mild respiratory symptoms on its own, its damage to the respiratory lining allows invasion by other microbes that greatly worsen disease.
  • Protection against Kennel Cough DEPENDS ON COMBINED IMMUNITY TO ALL ITS CAUSES.
  • Vaccination protocols using Bordetella vaccines in addition to combination products such as 5-1 vaccines can provide optimal protection against “Kennel Cough” and it’s complications

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination is safe and effective in preventing Canine Adenovirus type 2 disease.
  • It’s considered a core vaccine that is appropriate for ALL dogs.
  • Besides protecting against “Kennel Cough”, the Canine Adenovirus type 2 vaccine also protects against Canine Adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine-hepatitis). Since Canine Adenovirus type 1 vaccines can result in eye complication, the 5-1 vaccine uses only Canine Adenovirus type 2 to protect against BOTH diseases.

Canine Adenovirus type-1

What is Canine adenovirus type 1?

  • Canine Adenovirus type-1 causes a potentially fatal liver disease in dogs. (Infectious Canine Hepatitis).

What dogs are at risk?

  • Canine Adenovirus type 1 is widely distributed and persistent.
  • Transmission occurs through contact with waste products or respiratory secretions from infected animals.
  • ANY dog lacking adequate immunity (either through natural infection or vaccination) is at risk.

What type of symptoms and illness does it cause?

  • Symptoms and disease outcome from Canine Adenovirus type 1 infection vary depending on disease severity.
  • Mild cases may show only short-term fever and depression.
  • Complicated cases develop liver disease that may progress to liver failure.
  • Symptoms of liver involvement include: hemorrhage, bruising, coma and sudden death
  • Up to 20% of dogs develop eye disease which may progress to glaucoma or blindness
  • The worst outcomes occur in unvaccinated puppies with waning or expired maternal protection.
  • Treatment (if required) is aimed at providing supportive care.

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination against Canine Adenovirus type 1 is safe and effective in preventing infectious canine hepatitis.
  • It also protects against Canine Adenovirus type 1 associated eye disease.
  • It is considered a core vaccine that every dog should receive.
  • Vaccination against Canine Adenovirus type 2 also protects against Canine Adenovirus type 1.
  • Since Canine Adenovirus type 1 vaccines may cause eye problems in some dogs, the 5-1 vaccine uses only Canine Adenovirus type 2 to protect against BOTH diseases.

Leptospirosis

What is Leptospirosis?  

  • Leptospirosis is a serious disease of dogs and humans caused by water-borne bacteria known as Leptospires. Human infection can occur through contact with infected animals.
  • Leptospires are members (serovars) of the bacterial family “Leptospira” found in standing water. They enter the environment from the urine of infected animals. Any contact with contaminated water or urine can transmit disease.
  • Leptospires enter the body through skin breaks or through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth.
  • What dogs are at risk for Leptospirosis?
  • Dogs with frequent or prolonged exposure to moist outdoor areas or to standing water are at risk.
  • City dogs may also be at risk due to contamination of urban areas (including your own back yard) by rodents, raccoons and stray animals.

What are the symptoms of Leptospirosis in pets? What is the course of this disease?

  • Common early symptoms of Leptospirosis may include fever, depression, poor appetite and vomiting.
  • Infected dogs face different outcomes depending on medical treatment and on their immune response.
  • Good immunity (either natural or by vaccination) provides complete to partial protection resulting in absent or mild disease. Poor immunity leads to serious disease. POSSIBLE FATAL COMPLICATIONS INCLUDE LIVER AND KIDNEY FAILURE.
  • If given promptly, antibiotics can halt disease and promote a complete recovery.
  • Unfortunately, the early symptoms of Leptospirosis are non-specific and easily confused with other diseases. This often leads to delays in specific, life-saving treatment.

Is vaccination against Leptospirosis safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Vaccination can only prevent leptospirosis caused by the specific serovars (see above) included in the vaccine. Current vaccines provide safe and effective protection against the four most common serovars that affect dogs in the U.S.
  • This is expected to provide significant though not total protection against Leptospirosis. No vaccine or vaccination protocol can provide complete protection against leptospirosis.
  • Current guidelines for at risk dogs recommend two initial vaccinations given 2 to 4 weeks apart then boostered yearly.
  • This vaccine is considered non-core. It is deemed most appropriate for dogs at risk (see above).
  • Leptospirosis vaccines are available in combination form (6 in 1 vaccine) or as a single agent/standalone product (Lepto-4x vaccine).

Rabies

What is rabies?

  • Rabies is a fatal disease of the nervous system caused by the rabies-virus. It can affect ALL mammals (including humans).

What dogs/cats are at risk?

  • Rabies is usually transmitted through bites or wounds inflicted by infected animals (wild or domestic). Other (less common) forms of transmission may also occur.
  • Common Wildlife sources in the U.S. include raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes.
  • ANY dog, cat (or other mammal) with potential exposure to wildlife or unvaccinated stray animals risks exposure.

What symptoms does it cause? What is the course of the disease?

  • The virus travels from nerve endings at the site of entry towards the spinal cord, brain and salivary glands. This eventually results in a variety of neurologic symptoms that may include: drooling, behavior changes, paralysis and seizures. Death follows shortly thereafter.
  • The time between exposure and the appearance of symptoms can vary from weeks to months depending on the species bitten and the site of the bite.

Is vaccination safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Rabies vaccination is considered a core vaccine that is appropriate for all dogs and cats regardless of lifestyle.
  • When given to pets according to recommended schedules, rabies vaccines are safe and effective.
  • Rabies vaccination programs targeting dogs have significantly reduced rabies cases in humans.
  • All fifty states in the U.S. have laws requiring rabies vaccination of dogs. Many have similar requirements for cats.
  • Municipal U.S. Rabies laws may be more stringent than state laws. Local ordinances should be checked to guarantee compliance for each pet.
  • Bites from pets without proof of rabies vaccinations subject owners to liability risks and pets to prolonged quarantine or euthanasia.

How often should rabies vaccinations be given?

  • Initial rabies vaccines are given to dogs and cats at 12 or 16 weeks of age (according to state law) and boostered a year later. Subsequent vaccine boosters are given in 1 to 3 years according to state law and product label instructions.

Please NOTE: We MUST see proof of prior rabies vaccination to issue a tag longer than one year. Proof means written documentation that the pet presented is the same pet, and has had a rabies vaccine given by a vet in the past. Without such documentation we can only mark a rabies vaccination as good for one year.


Canine Bordetella (“Kennel-Cough”)

What is “Kennel-Cough”

  • “Kennel Cough” is the common name for a respiratory disease known as Infectious Tracheo-bronchitis.
  • This common, canine disease presents with sudden, prolonged and severe coughing that may last several weeks.
  • Most dogs suffer significant distress but recover uneventfully. Veterinary care is often required to manage symptoms and to prevent complications such as pneumonia.
  • Most cases of kennel cough are caused by one of three respiratory microbes:

What is bordetella?

  • Bordetella is the short name for the highly contagious, airborne bacteria known as Bordetella Bronchiseptica (the main cause of canine “Kennel Cough”).

What dogs are at risk for “Kennel Cough”?

  • Dogs that regularly visit locations with high numbers of dogs are at risk.
  • Such places include grooming and boarding establishments, dog shows, animal shelters and busy dog parks.

Is vaccination against “Kennel Cough” safe and effective? Is it recommended?

  • Optimal protection against kennel cough involves vaccinating against its top three causes (see above). This can be safely achieved by combined use of the 5 in 1 and Bordetella vaccines.
  • Three types of Bordetella vaccines are available (intranasal, intraoral or sub-cutaneous). A vaccine protocol that has shown superior efficacy involves giving an intranasal vaccine initially followed with an injectable booster 2-4 weeks later. Yearly boosters are given thereafter to maintain adequate immunity. Other protocols are also effective.
  • The Bordetella vaccine is considered non-core and is appropriate for dogs with the above mentioned risk factors.
  • Note: Many dog-care facilities will require proof of Bordetella vaccination to help prevent outbreaks on their premises.

Lyme Disease

What is Lyme disease?

  • Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness of people and dogs caused by the bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi).
  • It spreads only through the bites of Ixodes ticks (deer ticks).

What dogs are at risk for Lyme Disease?

  • Lyme disease is concentrated in specific geographic areas. Most cases in the U.S. occur in the Northeast, Northern Midwest and California. Other regions report much fewer cases.
  • Dogs from high-risk areas with outdoor lifestyles are at risk.

What are the symptoms of Lyme disease in dogs? What is the course of the disease?

  • Though many Lyme infected dogs remain healthy and symptom-free, others develop a painful and chronic disease requiring extensive veterinary care.
  • Common symptoms include repeated bouts of fever, depression, arthritis and lameness. Kidney, cardiac, and neurologic disease are possible serious complications.
  • Antibiotics limit the disease but may not eradicate infection and may require prolonged and repeated use.

How can at-risk dogs be protected?

  • Tick-repellant protects against Lyme disease and are recommended for all at risk dogs.
  • Less practical methods for tick avoidance include: manual removal, environmental pesticides and keeping pets indoors.

Can vaccines protect against Lyme disease?

  • Though not a substitute for tick-control, vaccination provides additional proven protection against Canine Lyme disease.
  • This vaccine is non-core. It is appropriate for dogs from high-risk areas with regular exposure to deer ticks.